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Modern black magicians, turned demigods, and never played the game of the gods

Modern black magicians, turned demigods, and never played the game of the gods

Advise for traveler and heroes by the game master

” When a hacker plays to be a psychic, by knowing your future

when a saboteur and spy plays to be magician able to create spells and change your future
when an empath and hypnotizer plays to be a clairvoyant able to read your future and all your future actions
when a psychic pusher and psy-hijacker, plays to be have similar powers than you
is when the intentionality of reading you
becomes that access gate to the field of information
necessary to destroy you and manipulate you
is when a modern demigod, plays to be a helper, and introduces it self to you as a spiritual person with knowledge,
to later let you know that all the destiny of your life
was created by her spells, powers, magic, will, hypnosis.

only greed for power

without a little drop of knowledge

and complete ignorance of the meaning of the world spiritual responsibility

when finally a “faked-friend”, is there for the only purpose of desempowering you as a demigod, and consuming your wealth and life

is when you realize, that you have been deceived by your own mind

by a deluded heart

It is when you realize that all the powers, skills, knowledge you have

have been utilized against you, in order to control your world and life

and what for?

only for the sake of utilizing you, and your wealth, for purposes you would have never endorsed otherwise.

It is your responsibility, to realize that you and your life, power and dreams, values and kindness, naive and good hearted self, have been pupetized.

as the reality i that not every one that wishes to play the game of the gods, would be worth of the gods attention nor of their blessings

bittered, spoiled, weak, poisoned hearts, may reach one day power, and even behave as demigods, they may intent to play games, along the tissue of realms, but the game of the gods, is only for the chosen ones.

there for be aware on who ask you for help, offer you help and friendship, ask you questions about people you know or dont know or even wish to work for you

in our modern world, the game may look different
but the intention and hearts did not change
humanity is still the same”
THE GAME MASTER

Athena, Goddess of peace

 

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athena

minerva_bronze

minerva_by_luceinfuocata

Athena was the Greek virgin goddess of reason, intelligent activity, arts and literature. She was the daughter of Zeus; her birth is unique in that she did not have a mother. Instead, she sprang full grown and clad in armour from Zeus’ forehead.
She was fierce and brave in battle; however, she only took part in wars that defended the state and home from outside enemies. She was the patron of the city, handcraft, and agriculture. She invented the bridle, which permitted man to tame horses, the trumpet, the flute, the pot, the rake, the plow, the yoke, the ship, and the chariot. She was the embodiment of wisdom, reason, and purity. She was Zeus’ favourite child and was allowed to use his weapons including his thunderbolt. Her holy tree was the olive tree and she was often symbolised as an owl.
She became the patron goddess of Athens after winning a contest against Poseidon by offering the olive tree to the Athenians. It is evident that Athena and Athens derive from the same root; Athens (or Athenae) is in plural form, because it represents the sisterhood of the goddess that existed there. Similarly, Athena was called Mykene in the city of Mycenae (also a plural after the respective sisterhood), and Thebe in the city of Thebes (or Thebae, both plural forms).
Athena Is also called Minerva, Athina, Athene. (REF: WIKI)

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Minerva

minerva_by_luceinfuocata

Minerva (/mɪˈnɜːr.və/Latin: [mɪˈnɛr.wa]EtruscanMenrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. She was born with weapons from the head of Jupiter.[1] After impregnating the titaness Metis, Jupiter recalled a prophecy that his own child would overthrow him. Fearing that their child would grow stronger than he and rule the Heavens in his place, Jupiter swallowed Metis whole. The titaness forged weapons and armor for her child while within the father-god, and the constant pounding and ringing gave him a headache. To relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to split Jupiter’s head and, from the cleft, Minerva emerged, whole, adult, and bearing her mother’s weapons and armor. From the 2nd century BC onwards, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena.[2] She was the virgingoddess of music, poetrymedicinewisdomcommerceweavingcrafts, and magic.[3] She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the “owl of Minerva“,[4] which symbolised her association with wisdom and knowledge.

minerva_bronze

Stemming from an Italic moon goddess *Meneswā (‘She who measures’), the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name, *Menerwā, thereby calling her Menrva. It is assumed that her Roman name, Minerva, is based on this Etruscan mythology. Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools and commerce. She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena. Like Athena, Minerva was born from the head of her father, Jupiter (Greek Zeus).

By a process of folk etymology, the Romans could have linked her foreign name to the root men- in Latinwords such as mens meaning “mind”, perhaps because one of her aspects as goddess pertained to the intellectual. The word mens is built from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- ‘mind’ (linked with memory as in Greek Mnemosyne/μνημοσύνη and mnestis/μνῆστις: memory, remembrance, recollection, manush in Sanskrit meaning mind).

The Etruscan Menrva was part of a holy triad with Tinia and Uni, equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triadof Jupiter-Juno-Minerva. Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter.

As Minerva Medica, she was the goddess of medicine and doctors. As Minerva Achaea, she was worshipped at Lucera in Apulia where votive gifts and arms said to be those of Diomedes were preserved in her temple.[5][6]

A head of “Sulis-Minerva” found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath

In Fasti III, Ovid called her the “goddess of a thousand works”. Minerva was worshipped throughout Italy, and when she eventually became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, she also became a goddess of battle. Unlike Mars, god of war, she was sometimes portrayed with sword lowered, in sympathy for the recent dead, rather than raised in triumph. In Rome her bellicose nature was emphasized less than elsewhere.[7] Her worship was also spread throughout the empire—in Britain, for example, she was syncretized with the local goddess Sulis, who was often invoked for restitution for theft.[8]

The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day which is called, in the neuter plural, Quinquatria, the fifth after the Ides of March, the nineteenth, an artisans‘ holiday . A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players, who were particularly useful to religion. In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva on the Aventine Hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus. The Aventine sanctuary of Minerva continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic.

Minerva was worshipped on the Capitoline Hill as one of the Capitoline Triad, at the Temple of Minerva Medica, and at the “Delubrum Minervae”, a temple founded around 50 BC by Pompey on the site now occupied by the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. When it was founded, the emperor himself was present and was believed to be of divine nature as a result of its construction.

The 7 Gods of Fortune

The Seven Gods of Fortune (七 福神, shichi fukujin in Japanese) guarantee good luck and often have their place in netsuke engravings or in other representations. Amongst the seven, not all gods are mythical characters, as there is one who is a historical figure.

They all began as remote and impersonal gods, but gradually became much closer canonical figures for certain professions and Japanese arts. During the course of its history, the mutual influence between gods has created confusion about which of them was the patron of certain professions. The worship of this group of gods is also due to the importance of the number seven in Japan, which is supposedly a bearer of good luck.[1]

It is known that these deities have their origins in ancient gods of fortune: from the Indian Hinduism (Benzaiten, Bishamonten, Daikokuten); and from the Chinese Taoism and Buddhism (Fukurokuju, Hotei, Jurojin), except for one (Ebisu) who has a Japanese ancestry.

These gods have been recognized as such for over a thousand years ago by a large number of followers. In the beginning, these gods were worshiped by merchants as the first two of them (Ebisu and Daikokuten) were gods of business and trade.

Subsequently, the other classes of the Japanese society looked for other gods that could correspond to their professions: so did Benzaiten, patron of the arts, Fukurokuju, patron of the sciences, and so on.

In ancient times, these gods were worshiped separately, but it rarely happens today – only when it is required for the god to act on behalf of the applicant.

The Seven Gods of Fortune started being mentioned as a collective by the year 1420 in Fushimi, in order to imitate the processions of the Daimyo, the feudal lords of pre-modern Japan.

It is said that the Buddhist priest Tenkai selected these gods after speaking with the shogun he served, Iemitsu Tokugawa, at the order of seeking whoever possessed the perfect virtues: longevity, fortune, popularity, sincerity, kindness, dignity and magnanimity.

Shortly after a famous artist of the time, Kano Yasunobu, was ordained to portray these gods for the first time ever.[1][2]

Ebisu (恵比寿)
From the period of the gods Izanami and Izanagi, Ebisu is the only one whose origins are purely Japanese. He is the god of prosperity and wealth in business, and of abundance in crops, cereals and food in general. He is the patron of fishermen and therefore is represented with fishermen’s costumes such as a typical hat, a fishing rod in his right hand and a fish that can be either a carp, a hake, a codfish or a sea bass, or any large fish in general that symbolize abundance in meals. It is now common to see his figure in restaurants where fish is served in great quantities or in household kitchens.[1]

Daikokuten (大黒天)
Daikokuten is also one of the Shichifukujin. He is the god of commerce and prosperity. There are other characteristics which have also been attributed to him, such as being the patron of cooks, farmers, bankers, and protector of crops. Curiously, he is also considered a demon hunter – legend says that the god Daikokuten hung a sacred talisman on the branch of a tree in his garden and, by using this as a trap, he was able to catch a demon. This god is characterized by his smile, having short legs and wearing a hat on his head. He is usually depicted with a bag full of valuable objects.[1][2] Daikokuten originated as a syncretic conflation of the Buddhist death deity Mahākāla with the Shinto deity Ōkuninushi.[3] The Japanese name Daikoku and the Hindi name Mahakala both translate to “Great Blackness”. Per the Butsuzōzui compendium of 1690 (reprinted and expanded in 1796), Daikoku can also manifest as a female known as Daikokunyo (大黒女) (“She of the Great Blackness”) or Daikokutennyo (大黒天女) (“She of the Great Blackness of the Heavens”).[4]

Bishamonten (毘沙門天)
His origin dates back to Hinduism, but he has been adapted by the Japanese culture. He comes from the Hindu god “Kubera” and is also known by the name “Vaisravana” from Hindu culture.

He is the god of fortune in war and battles, also associated with authority and dignity. He is literally the protector of those who follow the rules and behave appropriately. As the patron of fighters, he is represented dressed in armour and a helmet, carrying a pagoda in his left hand. He also acts as protector of holy sites and important places and holds a spear in his right hand to fight against the evil spirits. He is usually depicted in illustrations with a hoop of fire.[1]

Benzaiten (弁才天 or 弁財天)
Her origin is found in Hinduism, as she comes from the Hindu goddess Sarasvati. While being the only female Fukujin in the modern grouping of seven Fukujin, she is named in various ways: Benzaiten (弁才天), Benten (弁天), Bentensama (弁天様), or Benzaitennyo (弁才天女). When she was adapted from Buddhism, she was given the attributes of talent, beauty and music among others. In many occasions her figure appears in the “Torii” (entrance of the temples). It is common to see her in the Japanese temples. She is represented as a smart, beautiful woman with all the aforementioned attributes. She carries a biwa, a Japanese traditional lute-like instrument and is normally accompanied by a white snake. She is the patron of artists, writers, dancers, and geisha, among others.[1]

Fukurokuju (福禄寿)
The god Fukurokuju, another Shichifukujin, has his origins in China. It is believed that he used to be a hermit during the Chinese Song dynasty, distinguished for being a reincarnation of the Taoist god Hsuan-wu. He is the god of wisdom, luck, longevity, wealth and happiness. This god receives certain credits, such as being one of the Chinese philosophers who could live without eating. Moreover, he is the only god who was said to have the ability to resurrect the dead. Fukurokuju is characterized by the size of his head, being almost as large as the size of his whole body, and is represented wearing traditional Chinese costumes. He normally carries a cane in one hand and in the other a scroll with writings about the world. He is usually accompanied by a turtle, a crow or a deer, animals that are frequently used in Japan to symbolize a long life. It is also said that he likes to play chess, and so he is also credited for being the patron of chess players.[1] Fukurokuju’s characteristics bear tremendous overlap with those of Jurōjin, which is why Fukurokuju is sometimes replaced by the goddess Kichijōten, as in the Butsuzōzui compendium of 1783.[5]

Jurōjin (寿老人)
Considered the incarnation of the southern polestar (南極星 “nankyokusei”) is the god of elderly and longevity in the Japanese Buddhist mythology. It is said that the legendary Juroujin is based on a real person who lived in ancient times. He was approximately 1.82 meters tall with a very long head. Besides his distinctive skull, he is represented with a long white beard, riding a deer and is often also accompanied by a 1500 years old crane and a tortoise, as symbols of his affinity with long lives. In addition, he is usually represented under a peach tree, as the fruit of this tree is considered, by Chinese Taoism and corroborated by scientists, able to prolong life as it has antioxidant properties. In his hand he holds a cane and a book or a scroll. The wisdom of the world remains written in its pages. Jurojin enjoys rice and wine, and is a very cheerful figure.[1]

Hotei (布袋)
God of fortune, guardian of the children, patron of diviners and barmen, and also the god of popularity. He is depicted as a fat, smiling, bald man with a curly moustache. He always appears half naked, as his clothes aren’t wide enough to cover his enormous belly. He did grace to the Chinese, and therefore they nicknamed him “Cho-Tei-Shi” or “Ho-Tei-Shi,” which means ‘bag of old clothes’.

Hotei was a Zen priest, but his appearance and some of his actions were against their moral condition: his appearance made him look like a quite mischievous person and he didn’t had a fixed place to sleep.

He carries a bag on his shoulders which is, according to the beliefs, loaded with fortunes for those who believe in his virtues.

The legend explains that Hotei was a real person. His Chinese name was Kaishi, and even though it seems that his date of birth is unknown, his death is recorded on March 916.

The Japanese began to believe in Hotei during the Edo era. The reason why the Japanese have such great respect for this god comes from a legend that says that, before the Zen Buddhism arrived to Japan, an alternative Buddhist thought was extended by a priest of dubious aesthetic, who actually was a manifestation of the Buddhist called Miroku. Miroku was the patron of those who could not be saved by the beliefs of Buddha, and Hotei was later perceived and accepted by the Japanese as a second Miroku.[1]

Kichijōten (吉祥天)
This Fukujin goddess is also known as Kisshōten (吉祥天) or Kisshoutennyo (吉祥天女), and is adapted via Buddhism from the Hindu goddess Laxmi. In the 1783 edition of the Butsuzōzui compendium (reprinted in 1796), Kichijōten replaces Fukurokuju as one of the seven Fukujin.[5] Kichijōten’s iconography is distinguished from the other Fukujin goddesses by the Nyoihōju gem (如意宝珠) in her hand. When Kichijōten replaces Fukurokuju, and Daikoku is regarded in feminine form,[4] all three of the Hindu Tridevi goddesses are then represented among the seven Fukujin.

REF: WIKI

Saraswati

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Saraswati (Sanskritसरस्वतीSarasvatī) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom and learning.[3] She is a part of the trinity (Tridevi) of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of BrahmaVishnu and Shiva to create, maintain and regenerate-recycle the Universe respectively.[4]

The earliest known mention of Saraswati as a goddess is in Rigveda. She has remained significant as a goddess from the Vedic period through modern times of Hindu traditions.[5] Some Hindus celebrate the festival of Vasant Panchami (the fifth day of spring) in her honour,[6] and mark the day by helping young children learn how to write alphabets on that day.[7] The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jainreligion of west and central India,[8] as well as some Buddhist sects.[9]

Saraswati who is revered as a goddess of knowledge, music and arts is also found outside Nepal and India, such as in Japan, Vietnam, Bali (Indonesia) and Myanmar.[10]

Saraswati, sometimes spelled Sarasvati, is a Sanskrit fusion word of Sara (सार)[11] which means essence, and Sva (स्व)[12] which means one self, the fused word meaning “essence of one self”, and Saraswati meaning “one who leads to essence of self knowledge”.[13][14] It is also a Sanskrit composite word of surasa-vati (सुरस-वति) which means “one with plenty of water”.[15][16]

The word Saraswati appears both as a reference to a river and as a significant deity in the Rigveda. In initial passages, the word refers to Sarasvati River and mentioned with other northwestern Indian rivers such as Drishadvati. Saraswati then connotes a river deity. In Book 2, Rigveda calls Saraswati as the best of mothers, of rivers, of goddesses.[16]

अम्बितमे नदीतमे देवितमे सरस्वति |
– Rigveda 2.41.16[17]

Best Mother, best of Rivers, best of Goddesses, Sarasvatī, We are, as ’twere, of no repute and dear Mother, give thou us renown.

Saraswati is celebrated as a feminine deity with healing, purifying powers of abundant, flowing waters in Book 10 of Rigveda, as follows:

अपो अस्मान मातरः शुन्धयन्तु घर्तेन नो घर्तप्वः पुनन्तु |
विश्वं हि रिप्रं परवहन्ति देविरुदिदाभ्यः शुचिरापूत एमि ||
– Rigveda 10.17[18]

May the waters, the mothers, cleanse us,
may they who purify with butter, purify us with butter,
for these goddesses bear away defilement,
I come up out of them pure and cleansed.
–Translated by John Muir

In Vedic literature, Saraswati acquires the same significance for early Indians (states John Muir) as that accredited to the river Ganges by their modern descendants. In hymns of Book 10 of Rigveda, she is already declared to be the “possessor of knowledge”.[19] Her importance grows in Vedas composed after Rigveda and in Brahmanas, and the word evolves in its meaning from “waters that purify”, to “that which purifies”, to “vach(speech) that purifies”, to “knowledge that purifies”, and ultimately into a spiritual concept of a goddess that embodies knowledge, arts, music, melody, muse, language, rhetoric, eloquence, creative work and anything whose flow purifies the essence and self of a person.[16][20] In Upanishads and Dharma Sastras, Saraswati is invoked to remind the reader to meditate on virtue, virtuous emoluments, the meaning and the very essence of one’s activity, one’s action.[20]

Saraswati is known by many names in ancient Hindu literature. Some examples of synonyms for Saraswati include Brahmani (power of Brahma), Brahmi (goddess of sciences),[21] Bharadi (goddess of history), Vani and Vachi (both referring to the flow of music/song, melodious speech, eloquent speaking respectively), Varnesvari (goddess of letters), Kavijihvagravasini (one who dwells on the tongue of poets).

In Nepali language, she is spelled as Nepaliसरस्वती. In the Telugu language, Sarasvati is also known as Chaduvula Thalli (చదువుల తల్లి), Sharada (శారద). In Konkani, she is referred to as Sharada, Veenapani, Pustaka dharini, Vidyadayini. In Kannada, variants of her name include Sharade, Sharadamba, Vani, Veenapani in the famous Sringeri temple. In Tamil, she is also known as Kalaimagal (கலைமகள்), Kalaivaani (கலைவாணி), Vaani (வாணி), Bharathi. She is also addressed as Sharada (the one who loves the autumn season), Veena pustaka dharani (the one holding books and a Veena), Vaakdevi, Vagdevi, Vani (all meaning “speech”), Varadhanayagi (the one bestowing boons), Savitri (consort of Brahma), Gayatri (mother of Vedas).[citation needed]

In India she is locally spelled as Bengaliসরস্বতীSaraswati ?Malayalamസരസ്വതിSaraswathy ?, and Tamilசரஸ்வதிSarasvatī ?.

Outside Nepal and India, she is known in Burmese as Thurathadi (သူရဿတီpronounced: [θùja̰ðədì] or [θùɹa̰ðədì]) or Tipitaka Medaw (တိပိဋကမယ်တော်pronounced: [tḭpḭtəka̰ mɛ̀dɔ̀]), in Chinese as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天/弁財天) and in Thai as Suratsawadi (สุรัสวดี) or Saratsawadi (สรัสวดี).[10]

Saraswati is found in almost every major ancient and medieval Indian literature between 1000 BC to 1500 AD. In Hindu tradition, she has retained her significance as a goddess from the Vedic age up to the present day.[5] In Shanti Parva of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Saraswati is called the mother of the Vedas, and later as the celestial creative symphony who appeared when Brahma created the universe.[16] In Book 2 of Taittiriya Brahmana, she is called the mother of eloquent speech and melodious music. Saraswati is the active energy and power of Brahma.[22] She is also mentioned in many minor Sanskrit publications such as Sarada Tilaka of 8th century AD as follows,[24]

May the goddess of speech enable us to attain all possible eloquence,
she who wears on her locks a young moon,
who shines with exquisite lustre,
who sits reclined on a white lotus,
and from the crimson cusp of whose hands pours,
radiance on the implements of writing, and books produced by her favour.
– On Saraswati, Sarada Tilaka[24]

Saraswati became a prominent deity in Buddhist iconography – the consort of Manjushri in 1st millennium AD. In some instances such as in the Sadhanamala of Buddhist pantheon, she has been symbolically represented similar to regional Hindu iconography, but unlike the more well known depictions of Saraswati.[9]

The goddess Saraswati is often depicted as a beautiful woman dressed in pure white, often seated on a white lotus, which symbolizes light, knowledge and truth.[25] She not only embodies knowledge but also the experience of the highest reality. Her iconography is typically in white themes from dress to flowers to swan – the colour symbolizing Sattwa Guna or purity, discrimination for true knowledge, insight and wisdom.[3][26]

She is generally shown to have four arms, but sometimes just two. When shown with four hands, those hands symbolically mirror her husband Brahma’s four heads, representing manas (mind, sense), buddhi (intellect, reasoning), citta (imagination, creativity) and ahamkara (self consciousness, ego).[13][27] Brahma represents the abstract, she action and reality.

The four hands hold items with symbolic meaning — a pustak (book or script), a mala (rosary, garland), a water pot and a musical instrument (lute or vina), a Flute or Venu in her hands.[3] The book she holds symbolizes the Vedas representing the universal, divine, eternal, and true knowledge as well as all forms of learning. A mālā of crystals, representing the power of meditation, inner reflection and spirituality. A pot of water represents the purifying power to separate right from wrong, the clean from the unclean, and essence from the inessential. In some texts, the pot of water is symbolism for soma – the drink that liberates and leads to knowledge.[3] The musical instrument, typically a veena, represents all creative arts and sciences,[13] and her holding it symbolizes expressing knowledge that creates harmony.[3][28] Saraswati is also associated with anurāga, the love for and rhythm of music, which represents all emotions and feelings expressed in speech or music.

A hansa / hans or swan is often located next to her feet. In Hindu mythology, hans is a sacred bird, which if offered a mixture of milk and water, is said to be able to drink the milk alone. It thus symbolizes the ability to discriminate between good and evil, essence from outward show and the eternal from the evanescent.[13] Due to her association with the swan, Saraswati is also referred to as Hansvahini, which means “she who has a hansa / hans as her vehicle”. The swan is also a symbolism for spiritual perfection, transcendence and moksha.[26][29]

Sometimes a citramekhala (also called mayurapeacock) is shown beside the goddess. The peacock symbolizes colorful splendor, celebration of dance, and – as the devourer of snakes – the alchemical ability to transmute the serpent poison of self into the radiant plumage of enlightenment.[30]

She is usually depicted near a flowing river or other body of water, which depiction may constitute a reference to her early history as a river goddess.

Maha Saraswati

In some regions of India, such as VindhyaOdishaWest Bengal and Assam, as well as east Nepal, Saraswati is part of the Devi Mahatmya mythology, in the trinity (Tridevi) of MahakaliMahalakshmi and Mahasaraswati.[31][32] This is one of many different Hindu legends that attempt to explain how Hindu trinity of gods (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva) and goddesses (Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati) came into being. Various Purana texts offer alternate legends for Maha Saraswati.[33]

Maha Saraswati is depicted as eight-armed and is often portrayed holding a Veena whilst sitting on a white lotus flower.

Her dhyāna shloka given at the beginning of the fifth chapter of Devi Mahatmya is:

Wielding in her lotus-hands the bell, trident, ploughshare, conch, pestle, discus, bow, and arrow, her lustre is like that of a moon shining in the autumn sky. She is born from the body of Gowri and is the sustaining base of the three worlds. That Mahasaraswati I worship here who destroyed Sumbha and other asuras.[34]

Mahasaraswati is also part of another legend, the Navdurgas, or nine forms of Durga, revered as powerful and dangerous goddesses in eastern India. They have special significance on Navaratri in these regions. All of these are seen ultimately as aspects of a single great Hindu goddess, with Maha Saraswati as one of those nine.[35]

Mahavidya Nila Saraswati

In Tibet and parts of India, Nilasaraswati is a form of Mahavidya Tara. Nila Saraswati is a different deity from traditional Saraswati, yet subsumes her knowledge and creative energy in tantric literature. Nila Sarasvati is the ugra (angry, violent, destructive) manifestation in one school of Hinduism, while the more common Saraswati is the saumya (calm, compassionate, productive) manifestation found in most others. In tantric literature of the former, Nilasaraswati has a 100 names. There are separate dhyana shlokas and mantras for her worship in Tantrasara.[36]

There are many temples, dedicated to Saraswati around the world. Some notable temples include the Gnana Saraswati Temple in Basar, on the banks of the River Godavari, the Wargal Saraswati and Shri Saraswati Kshetramu temples in Medak, Telangana. In Karnataka, one of many Saraswati/Sharada pilgrimage spots is Shringeri Sharadamba Temple. In Ernakulam district of Kerala, there is a famous Saraswati temple in North Paravur, namely Dakshina Mookambika Temple North Paravur. In Tamil Nadu, Koothanur hosts a Saraswati temple about 25 kilometres from Tiruvarur.

Saraswati in Myanmar[edit]

In Burma, the Shwezigon Mon Inscription dated to be of 1084 AD, near Bagan, recites the name Saraswati as follows,

“The wisdom of eloquence called Saraswati shall dwell in mouth of King Sri Tribhuwanadityadhammaraja at all times”. – Translated by Than Tun[42]

Statue of Thurathadi at Kyauktawgyi Buddha Temple (Yangon)

In Buddhist arts of Myanmar, she is called Thurathadi (or Thayéthadi).[43]:215 Students in Myanmar pray for her blessings before their exams.[43]:327 She is also believed to be, in Mahayana pantheon of Myanmar, the protector of Buddhist scriptures.[44]

Saraswati in Japan

Main article: Benzaiten

The concept of Saraswati migrated from India, through China to Japan, where she appears as Benzaiten (弁財天).[45]Worship of Benzaiten arrived in Japan during the 6th through 8th centuries. She is often depicted holding a biwa, a traditional Japanese lute musical instrument. She is enshrined on numerous locations throughout Japan such as the Kamakura’s Zeniarai Benzaiten Ugafuku Shrine or Nagoya’s Kawahara Shrine;[46] the three biggest shrines in Japan in her honour are at the Enoshima Island in Sagami Bay, the Chikubu Island in Lake Biwa, and the Itsukushima Island in Seto Inland Sea.

Saraswati in Cambodia

Saraswati was honoured with invocations among Hindus of Angkorian Cambodia, suggests a tenth-century and another eleventh-century inscription.[47] She and Brahma are referred to in Cambodian epigraphy from the 7th century onwards, and she is praised by Khmer poets for being goddess of eloquence, writing and music. More offerings were made to her than to her husband Brahma. She is also referred to as Vagisvari and Bharati in Yasovarman era Khmer literature.[47]

Saraswati in Thailand

In ancient Thai literature, Saraswati (ThaiสุรัสวดีrtgsSuratsawadi) is the goddess of speech and learning, and consort of Brahma.[48] Over time, Hindu and Buddhist concepts on deities merged in Thailand. Icons of Saraswati with other deities of India are found in old Thai wats.[49] Amulets with Saraswati and a peacock are also found in Thailand.

Saraswati in Indonesia

Saraswati is an important goddess in Balinese Hinduism. She shares the same attributes and iconography as Saraswati in Hindu literature of India – in both places, she is the goddess of knowledge, creative arts, wisdom, language, learning and purity. In Bali, she is celebrated on Saraswati day, one of the main festivals for Hindus in Indonesia.[50][51] The day marks the close of 210-day year in the Pawukon calendar.[52]

On Saraswati day, people make offerings in the form of flowers in temples and to sacred texts. The day after Saraswati day, is Banyu Pinaruh, a day of cleansing. On this day, Hindus of Bali go to the sea, sacred waterfalls or river spots, offer prayers to Saraswati, and then rinse themselves in that water in the morning. Then they prepare a feast, such as the traditional bebek betutu and nasi kuning, that they share.[53]

The Saraswati Day festival has a long history in Bali.[54] It has become more widespread in Hindu community of Indonesia in recent decades, and it is celebrated with theatre and dance performance.[52]

Athena

Athena (/əˈθnə/Attic GreekἈθηνᾶAthēnā, or ἈθηναίαAthēnaiaEpicἈθηναίηAthēnaiēDoricἈθάναAthānā) or Athene (/əˈθn/IonicἈθήνηAthēnē), often given the epithet Pallas (/ˈpæləs/Παλλὰς), is the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, mathematics, strength, war strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill in ancient Greek religionand mythologyMinerva is the Roman goddess identified with Athena.[2] Athena is known for her calm temperament, as she moves slowly to anger. She is noted to have only fought for just reasons, and would not fight without a purpose.[3]

Athena is portrayed as a shrewd companion of heroes and is the patron goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the virgin patroness of Athens. The Athenians founded the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens (Athena Parthenos), in her honour.[2]

Veneration of Athena was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes.[citation needed] In her role as a protector of the city (polis), many people throughout the Greek world worshipped Athena as Athena Polias (Ἀθηνᾶ Πολιάς “Athena of the city”). While the city of Athens and the goddess Athena essentially bear the same name (Athena the goddess, Athenai the city), it is not known which of the two words is derived from the other

Minerva

Minerva (/mɪˈnɜːr.və/Latin: [mɪˈnɛr.wa]EtruscanMenrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. She was born with weapons from the head of Jupiter.[1] After impregnating the titaness Metis, Jupiter recalled a prophecy that his own child would overthrow him. Fearing that their child would grow stronger than he and rule the Heavens in his place, Jupiter swallowed Metis whole. The titaness forged weapons and armor for her child while within the father-god, and the constant pounding and ringing gave him a headache. To relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to split Jupiter’s head and, from the cleft, Minerva emerged, whole, adult, and bearing her mother’s weapons and armor. From the 2nd century BC onwards, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena.[2] She was the virgingoddess of music, poetrymedicinewisdomcommerceweavingcrafts, and magic.[3] She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the “owl of Minerva“,[4] which symbolised her association with wisdom and knowledge.

Stemming from an Italic moon goddess *Meneswā (‘She who measures’), the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name, *Menerwā, thereby calling her Menrva. It is assumed that her Roman name, Minerva, is based on this Etruscan mythology. Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools and commerce. She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena. Like Athena, Minerva was born from the head of her father, Jupiter (Greek Zeus).

By a process of folk etymology, the Romans could have linked her foreign name to the root men- in Latinwords such as mens meaning “mind”, perhaps because one of her aspects as goddess pertained to the intellectual. The word mens is built from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- ‘mind’ (linked with memory as in Greek Mnemosyne/μνημοσύνη and mnestis/μνῆστις: memory, remembrance, recollection, manush in Sanskrit meaning mind).

The Etruscan Menrva was part of a holy triad with Tinia and Uni, equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triadof Jupiter-Juno-Minerva. Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter.

As Minerva Medica, she was the goddess of medicine and doctors. As Minerva Achaea, she was worshipped at Lucera in Apulia where votive gifts and arms said to be those of Diomedes were preserved in her temple.[5][6]

A head of “Sulis-Minerva” found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath

In Fasti III, Ovid called her the “goddess of a thousand works”. Minerva was worshipped throughout Italy, and when she eventually became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, she also became a goddess of battle. Unlike Mars, god of war, she was sometimes portrayed with sword lowered, in sympathy for the recent dead, rather than raised in triumph. In Rome her bellicose nature was emphasized less than elsewhere.[7] Her worship was also spread throughout the empire—in Britain, for example, she was syncretized with the local goddess Sulis, who was often invoked for restitution for theft.[8]

The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day which is called, in the neuter plural, Quinquatria, the fifth after the Ides of March, the nineteenth, an artisans‘ holiday . A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players, who were particularly useful to religion. In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva on the Aventine Hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus. The Aventine sanctuary of Minerva continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic.

Minerva was worshipped on the Capitoline Hill as one of the Capitoline Triad, at the Temple of Minerva Medica, and at the “Delubrum Minervae”, a temple founded around 50 BC by Pompey on the site now occupied by the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. When it was founded, the emperor himself was present and was believed to be of divine nature as a result of its construction.

REF: WIKI

 

Pan

Sweet,_piercing_sweet_was_the_music_of_Pan's_pipepanhorns

In Greek religion and mythologyPan (/ˈpæn/;[1] Ancient GreekΠάνPan) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds and rustic music, and companion of the nymphs.[2] His name originates within the Ancient Greek language, from the word paein (πάειν),[citation needed] meaning “to pasture”;[3] the modern word “panic” is derived from the name. He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. With his homeland in rustic Arcadia, he is also recognized as the god of fields, groves, and wooded glens; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism.[4]

In Roman religion and myth, Pan’s counterpart was Faunus, a nature god who was the father of Bona Dea, sometimes identified as Fauna; he was also closely associated with Sylvanus, due to their similar relationships with woodlands. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Pan became a significant figure in the Romantic movement of western Europe and also in the 20th-century Neopagan movement.[5]

 

pan3

An area in the Golan Heights known as the Panion or Panium is associated with Pan. The city of Caesarea Philippi, the site of the Battle of Panium and the Banias natural spring, grotto or cave, and related shrines dedicated to Pan, may be found there.

In his earliest appearance in literature, Pindar‘s Pythian Ode iii. 78, Pan is associated with a mother goddess, perhaps Rhea or Cybele; Pindar refers to virgins worshipping Cybele and Pan near the poet’s house in Boeotia.[6]

pan4 pan5 pan7 pan8

The parentage of Pan is unclear;[7] generally he is the son of Hermes, although occasionally in some mythshe is the son of Zeus, or Dionysus, with whom his mother is said to be a wood nymph, sometimes Dryope or, even in the 5th-century AD source Dionysiaca by Nonnus (14.92), Penelope of Mantineia in Arcadia. In some early sources such as Pindar, his father is Apollo via Penelope, the wife of Odysseus.[8] Herodotus (2.145), Cicero (ND 3.22.56), Apollodorus(7.38) and Hyginus (Fabulae 224) all make Hermes and Penelope his parents. Pausanias 8.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband, who banished her to Mantineia upon his return. Other sources (Duris of Samos; the Vergilian commentator Servius) report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus’ absence, and gave birth to Pan as a result.[9] This myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pan’s name (Πάν) with the Greek word for “all” (πᾶν).[10] It is more likely to be cognate with πάειν paein, “to pasture”, and to share an origin with the modern English word “pasture”. In 1924, Hermann Collitz suggested that Greek Pan and Indic Pushan might have a common Indo-European origin.[11][12] In the mystery cults of the highly syncretic Hellenistic era[13] Pan is made cognate with Phanes/ProtogonosZeusDionysus and Eros.[14]

Accounts of Pan’s genealogy are so varied that it must lie buried deep in mythic time. Like other nature spirits, Pan appears to be older than the Olympians, if it is true that he gave Artemis her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to Apollo. Pan might be multiplied as the Pans (Burkert 1985, III.3.2; Ruck and Staples, 1994, p. 132[15]) or the Paniskoi. Kerenyi (p. 174) notes from scholia that Aeschylus in Rhesus distinguished between two Pans, one the son of Zeus and twin of Arcas, and one a son of Cronus. “In the retinue of Dionysos, or in depictions of wild landscapes, there appeared not only a great Pan, but also little Pans, Paniskoi, who played the same part as the Satyrs“.

The Roman Faunus, a god of Indo-European origin, was equated with Pan.

The worship of Pan began in Arcadia which was always the principal seat of his worship. Arcadia was a district of mountain people, culturally separated from other Greeks. Greek hunters used to scourge the statue of the god if they had been disappointed in the chase (Theocritus. vii. 107).

Being a rustic god, Pan was not worshipped in temples or other built edifices, but in natural settings, usually caves or grottoes such as the one on the north slope of the Acropolis of Athens. These are often referred to as the Cave of Pan. The only exceptions are the Temple of Pan on the Neda Rivergorge in the southwestern Peloponnese – the ruins of which survive to this day – and the Temple of Pan at Apollonopolis Magna in ancient Egypt.[16] In the 4th century BC Pan was depicted on the coinage of Pantikapaion.

The goat-god Aegipan was nurtured by Amalthea with the infant Zeus in Athens. In Zeus’ battle with Gaia, Aegipan and Hermes stole back Zeus’ “sinews” that Typhon had hidden away in the Corycian Cave.[18] Pan aided his foster-brother in the battle with the Titans by letting out a horrible screech and scattering them in terror. According to some traditions, Aegipan was the son of Pan, rather than his father.

One of the famous myths of Pan involves the origin of his pan flute, fashioned from lengths of hollow reed. Syrinxwas a lovely wood-nymph of Arcadia, daughter of Landon, the river-god. As she was returning from the hunt one day, Pan met her. To escape from his importunities, the fair nymph ran away and didn’t stop to hear his compliments. He pursued from Mount Lycaeum until she came to her sisters who immediately changed her into a reed. When the air blew through the reeds, it produced a plaintive melody. The god, still infatuated, took some of the reeds, because he could not identify which reed she became, and cut seven pieces (or according to some versions, nine), joined them side by side in gradually decreasing lengths, and formed the musical instrument bearing the name of his beloved Syrinx. Henceforth Pan was seldom seen without it.

Echo was a nymph who was a great singer and dancer and scorned the love of any man. This angered Pan, a lecherous god, and he instructed his followers to kill her. Echo was torn to pieces and spread all over earth. The goddess of the earth, Gaia, received the pieces of Echo, whose voice remains repeating the last words of others. In some versions, Echo and Pan had two children: Iambe and Iynx. In other versions, Pan had fallen in love with Echo, but she scorned the love of any man but was enraptured by Narcissus. As Echo was cursed by Hera to only be able to repeat words that had been said by someone else, she could not speak for herself. She followed Narcissus to a pool, where he fell in love with his own reflection and changed into a narcissus flower. Echo wasted away, but her voice could still be heard in caves and other such similar places.

Pan also loved a nymph named Pitys, who was turned into a pine tree to escape him.

Disturbed in his secluded afternoon naps, Pan’s angry shout inspired panic (panikon deima) in lonely places.[19][20] Following the Titans’ assault on Olympus, Pan claimed credit for the victory of the gods because he had frightened the attackers. In the Battle of Marathon (490 BC), it is said that Pan favored the Athenians and so inspired panic in the hearts of their enemies, the Persians.[21]

Pan is famous for his sexual powers, and is often depicted with a phallusDiogenes of Sinope, speaking in jest, related a myth of Pan learning masturbation from his father, Hermes, and teaching the habit to shepherds.[22]

Pan’s greatest conquest was that of the moon goddess Selene. He accomplished this by wrapping himself in a sheepskin[23] to hide his hairy black goat form, and drew her down from the sky into the forest where he seduced her.

In two late Roman sources, Hyginus[24] and Ovid,[25] Pan is substituted for the satyr Marsyas in the theme of a musical competition (agon), and the punishment by flaying is omitted.

Pan once had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo, and to challenge Apollo, the god of the lyre, to a trial of skill. Tmolus, the mountain-god, was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes and gave great satisfaction with his rustic melody to himself and to his faithful follower, Midas, who happened to be present. Then Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas agreed with the judgment. Midas dissented and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer and turned Midas’ ears into those of a donkey.

In another version of the myth, the first round of the contest was a tie, so the competitors were forced to hold a second round. In this round, Apollo demanded that they play their instruments upside-down. Apollo, playing the lyre, was unaffected. However, Pan’s pipe could not be played while upside down, so Apollo won the contest.

The constellation Capricornus is traditionally depicted as a sea-goat, a goat with a fish’s tail (see “Goatlike” Aigaion called Briareos, one of the Hecatonchires). A myth reported as “Egyptian” in Hyginus‘ Poetic Astronomy[26] that would seem to be invented to justify a connection of Pan with Capricorn says that when Aegipan — that is Pan in his goat-god aspect —[27] was attacked by the monster Typhon, he dove into the Nile; the parts above the water remained a goat, but those under the water transformed into a fish.

Aegocerus “goat-horned” was an epithet of Pan descriptive of his figure with the horns of a goat.[28]

Pan could be multiplied into a swarm of Pans, and even be given individual names, as in Nonnus‘ Dionysiaca, where the god Pan had twelve sons that helped Dionysus in his war against the Indians. Their names were Kelaineus, Argennon, Aigikoros, Eugeneios, Omester, Daphoenus, Phobos, Philamnos, Xanthos, Glaukos, Argos, and Phorbas.

Two other Pans were Agreus and Nomios. Both were the sons of Hermes, Agreus’ mother being the nymph Sose, a prophetess: he inherited his mother’s gift of prophecy, and was also a skilled hunter. Nomios’ mother was Penelope (not the same as the wife of Odysseus). He was an excellent shepherd, seducer of nymphs, and musician upon the shepherd’s pipes. Most of the mythological stories about Pan are actually about Nomios, not the god Pan. Although, Agreus and Nomios could have been two different aspects of the prime Pan, reflecting his dual nature as both a wise prophet and a lustful beast.

Aegipan, literally “goat-Pan,” was a Pan who was fully goatlike, rather than half-goat and half-man. When the Olympians fled from the monstrous giant Typhoeus and hid themselves in animal form, Aegipan assumed the form of a fish-tailed goat. Later he came to the aid of Zeus in his battle with Typhoeus, by stealing back Zeus’ stolen sinews. As a reward the king of the gods placed him amongst the stars as the Constellation Capricorn. The mother of Aegipan, Aix (the goat), was perhaps associated with the constellation Capra.

Sybarios was an Italian Pan who was worshipped in the Greek colony of Sybaris in Italy. The Sybarite Pan was conceived when a Sybarite shepherd boy named Krathis copulated with a pretty she-goat amongst his herds.

According to the Greek historian Plutarch (in De defectu oraculorum, “The Obsolescence of Oracles”),[29] Pan is the only Greek god (other than Asclepius) who actually dies. During the reign of Tiberius (A.D. 14–37), the news of Pan’s death came to one Thamus, a sailor on his way to Italy by way of the island of Paxi. A divine voice hailed him across the salt water, “Thamus, are you there? When you reach Palodes,[30] take care to proclaim that the great god Pan is dead.” Which Thamus did, and the news was greeted from shore with groans and laments.

Christian apologists such as G. K. Chesterton repeated and amplified the significance of the “death” of Pan, suggesting that with the “death” of Pan came the advent of theology. To this effect, Chesterton once said, “It is said truly in a sense that Pan died because Christ was born. It is almost as true in another sense that men knew that Christ was born because Pan was already dead. A void was made by the vanishing world of the whole mythology of mankind, which would have asphyxiated like a vacuum if it had not been filled with theology.”[31][32][33] It was interpreted with concurrent meanings in all four modes of medieval exegesis: literally as historical fact, and allegorically as the death of the ancient order at the coming of the new.[original research?] Eusebius of Caesarea in his Praeparatio Evangelica (book V) seems[dubious ] to have been the first Christian apologist to give Plutarch’s anecdote, which he identifies as his source[citation needed], pseudo-historical standing, which Eusebius buttressed with many invented passing details that lent verisimilitude.[citation needed]

In more modern times, some have suggested a possible a naturalistic explanation for the myth. For example, Robert Graves (The Greek Myths) reported a suggestion that had been made by Salomon Reinach[34] and expanded by James S. Van Teslaar[35] that the hearers aboard the ship, including a supposed Egyptian, Thamus, apparently misheard Thamus Panmegas tethneke ‘the all-great Tammuz is dead’ for ‘Thamus, Great Pan is dead!’, Thamous, Pan ho megas tethneke. “In its true form the phrase would have probably carried no meaning to those on board who must have been unfamiliar with the worship of Tammuz which was a transplanted, and for those parts, therefore, an exotic custom.”[36] Certainly, when Pausanias toured Greece about a century after Plutarch, he found Pan’s shrines, sacred caves and sacred mountains still very much frequented. However, a naturalistic explanation might not be needed. For example, William Hansen[37] has shown that the story is quite similar to a class of widely known tales known as Fairies Send a Message.

The cry “Great Pan is dead” has appealed to poets, such as John Milton, in his ecstatic celebration of Christian peace, On the Morning of Christ’s Nativityline 89,[38] and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.[39]

One remarkable commentary of Herodotus[40] on Pan is that he lived 800 years before himself (c. 1200 BCE), this being already after the Trojan War.

In the late 18th century, interest in Pan revived among liberal scholars. Richard Payne Knight discussed Pan in his Discourse on the Worship of Priapus (1786) as a symbol of creation expressed through sexuality. “Pan is represented pouring water upon the organ of generation; that is, invigorating the active creative power by the prolific element.”[41]

In the English town of Painswick in Gloucestershire, a group of 18th-century gentry, led by Benjamin Hyett, organised an annual procession dedicated to Pan, during which a statue of the deity was held aloft, and people shouted ‘Highgates! Highgates!” Hyett also erected temples and follies to Pan in the gardens of his house and a “Pan’s lodge”, located over Painswick Valley. The tradition died out in the 1830s, but was revived in 1885 by the new vicar, W. H. Seddon, who mistakenly believed that the festival had been ancient in origin. One of Seddon’s successors, however, was less appreciative of the pagan festival and put an end to it in 1950, when he had Pan’s statue buried.[42]

John Keats‘s “Endymion” opens with a festival dedicated to Pan where a stanzaic hymn is sung in praise of him. “Keats’s account of Pan’s activities is largely drawn from the Elizabethan poets. Douglas Bush notes, ‘The goat-god, the tutelary divinity of shepherds, had long been allegorized on various levels, from Christ to “Universall Nature” (Sandys); here he becomes the symbol of the romantic imagination, of supra-mortal knowledge.'”[43]

In the late 19th century Pan became an increasingly common figure in literature and art. Patricia Merivale states that between 1890 and 1926 there was an “astonishing resurgence of interest in the Pan motif”.[44] He appears in poetry, in novels and children’s books, and is referenced in the name of the character Peter Pan.[45] He is the eponymous “Piper at the Gates of Dawn”[46] in the seventh chapter of Kenneth Grahame‘s The Wind in the Willows(1908). Grahame’s Pan, unnamed but clearly recognisable, is a powerful but secretive nature-god, protector of animals, who casts a spell of forgetfulness on all those he helps. He makes a brief appearance to help the Rat and Mole recover the Otter’s lost son Portly.

Arthur Machen‘s 1894 novella The Great God Pan uses the god’s name in a simile about the whole world being revealed as it really is: “seeing the Great God Pan”. The novella is considered by many (including Stephen King) as being one of the greatest horror stories ever written.

Pan entices villagers to listen to his pipes as if in a trance in Lord Dunsany‘s novel The Blessing of Pan published in 1927. Although the god does not appear within the story, his energy certainly invokes the younger folk of the village to revel in the summer twilight, and the vicar of the village is the only person worried about the revival of worship for the old pagan god.

Pan is also featured as a prominent character in Tom Robbins‘ Jitterbug Perfume (1984). Aeronautical engineer and occultist Jack Parsons invoked Pan before test launches at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The British writer and editor Mark Beech of Egaeus Press published in 2015 the limited-edition anthology Soliloquy for Pan[47] which includes essays and poems such as “The Rebirthing of Pan” by Adrian Eckersley, “Pan’s Pipes” by Robert Louis Stevenson, “Pan With Us” by Robert Frost, and “The Death of Pan” by Lord Dunsany. Some of the beautifully detailed illustrated depictions of Pan included in the volume are by the artists Giorgio GhisiSir James ThornhillBernard PicartAgostino VenezianoVincenzo Cartari, and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.

 

Pan’s goatish image recalls[citation needed] conventional faun-like depictions of Satan. Although Christian use of Plutarch’s story is of long standing,[original research?][citation needed] Ronald Hutton[48] has argued that this specific association is modern and derives from Pan’s popularity in Victorian and Edwardian neopaganism. Medieval and early modern images of Satan tend, by contrast, to show generic semi-human monsters with horns, wings and clawed feet.

In 1933, the Egyptologist Margaret Murray published the book, The God of the Witches, in which she theorised that Pan was merely one form of a horned god who was worshipped across Europe by a witch-cult.[49] This theory influenced the Neopagan notion of the Horned God, as an archetype of male virility and sexuality. In Wicca, the archetype of the Horned God is highly important, as represented by such deities as the Celtic Cernunnos, Indian Pashupati, and Greek Pan.

A modern account of several purported meetings with Pan is given by Robert Ogilvie Crombie in The Findhorn Garden (Harper & Row, 1975) and The Magic of Findhorn (Harper & Row, 1975). Crombie claimed to have met Pan many times at various locations in Scotland, including Edinburgh, on the island of Iona and at the Findhorn Foundation.

Helios

 

“Let us adore the supremacy of that divine sun, the god-head who illuminates all, who recreates all, from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, whom we invoke to direct our understandings aright in our progress toward his holy seat.”

“Unveil, O Thou who givest sustenance to the Universe, from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, that face of the True Sun now hidden by a vase of golden light, that we may see the truth and do our whole duty on our journey to thy sacred seat.”

“We meditate on the worshipable power and glory of Him who has created the earth, the nether world and the heavens (i.e. the universe), and who directs our understanding.”

“We meditate on the glory of that Being who has produced this universe; may He enlighten our minds.”

” We meditate on the effulgent glory of the divine Light; may he inspire our understanding.”[

“We meditate on the adorable glory of the radiant sun; may he inspire our intelligence.”

holos

Helios (/ˈhli.ɒs/Ancient GreekἭλιος HēliosLatinized as HeliusἨέλιος in Homeric Greek) was the personification of the Sun in Greek mythology. He is the son of the Titan Hyperion and the Titaness Theia(according to Hesiod), also known as Euryphaessa (in Homeric Hymn 31) and brother of the goddesses Selene, the moon, and Eos, the dawn.

Helios was described as a handsome titan crowned with the shining aureole of the Sun, who drove the chariot of the sun across the sky each day to earth-circling Oceanus and through the world-ocean returned to the East at night. In the Homeric hymn to Helios, Helios is said to drive a golden chariot drawn by steeds (HH 31.14–15); and Pindar speaks of Helios’s “fire-darting steeds” (Olympian Ode 7.71). Still later, the horses were given fiery names: PyroisAeosAethon, and Phlegon.

As time passed, Helios was increasingly identified with the god of light, Apollo. However, in spite of their syncretism, they were also often viewed as two distinct gods/titan (Helios was a Titan, whereas Apollo was an Olympian). The equivalent of Helios in Roman mythology was Sol, specifically Sol Invictus.

The Greek ἥλιος is the inherited word for the Sun, from Proto-Indo-European *sóh₂wl̥, cognate with LatinsolSanskrit suryaOld English sweglOld Norse sólWelsh haul, etc.[1]

The female offspring of Helios were called Heliades. The Greek sun god had various bynames or epithets, which over time in some cases came to be considered separate deities associated with the Sun. Most notably, Helios is closely associated with, and sometimes consciously identified with, Apollo.

Diodorus Siculus of Sicily reported that the Chaldeans called Cronus (Saturn) by the name Helios, or the sun, and he explained that this was because Saturn was the most conspicuous of the planets.[2]

Among these is Hyperion (superus, “high up”), Elektor (of uncertain derivation, often translated as “beaming” or “radiant”; especially in the combination elektor Hyperion), Phaëton “the radiant”, Hekatos (of Apollo, also Hekatebolos “far-shooter”, i.e. the sun’s rays considered as arrows).

The best known story involving Helios is that of his son Phaëton, who attempted to drive his father’s chariot but lost control and set the earth on fire.

Helios was sometimes characterized with the epithet Panoptes (“the all-seeing”). In the story told in the hall of Alcinous in the Odyssey (viii.300ff.), Aphrodite, the consort of Hephaestus, secretly beds Ares, but all-seeing Helios spies on them and tells Hephaestus, who ensnares the two lovers in nets invisibly fine, to punish them.

In the OdysseyOdysseus and his surviving crew land on Thrinacia, an island sacred to the sun god, whom Circenames Hyperion rather than Helios. There, the sacred red[citation needed] cattle of the Sun were kept:

You will now come to the Thrinacian island, and here you will see many herds of cattle and flocks of sheep belonging to the sun-god. There will be seven herds of cattle and seven flocks of sheep, with fifty heads in each flock. They do not breed, nor do they become fewer in number, and they are tended by the goddesses Phaethusa and Lampetia, who are children of the sun-god Hyperion by Neaera. Their mother when she had borne them and had done suckling them sent them to the Thrinacian island, which was a long way off, to live there and look after their father’s flocks and herds.[3]

Though Odysseus warns his men, when supplies run short they impiously kill and eat some of the cattle of the Sun. The guardians of the island, Helios’ daughters, tell their father about this. Helios appeals to Zeustelling them to dispose of Odysseus’ men or he will take the Sun and shine it in the Underworld. Zeus destroys the ship with his lightning bolt, killing all the men except for Odysseus.

Solar Apollo with the radiant halo of Helios in a Roman floor mosaic, El Djem, Tunisia, late 2nd century

In one Greek vase painting, Helios appears riding across the sea in the cup of the Delphic tripod which appears to be a solar reference. Athenaeus in Deipnosophistae relates that, at the hour of sunset, Helios climbed into a great golden cup in which he passes from the Hesperides in the farthest west to the land of the Ethiops, with whom he passes the dark hours. While Heracles traveled to Erytheia to retrieve the cattle of Geryon, he crossed the Libyan desert and was so frustrated at the heat that he shot an arrow at Helios, the Sun. Almost immediately, Heracles realized his mistake and apologized profusely, in turn and equally courteous, Helios granted Heracles the golden cup which he used to sail across the sea every night, from the west to the east because he found Heracles’ actions immensely bold. Heracles used this golden cup to reach Erytheia.[4]

By the Oceanid Perse, Helios became the father of AeëtesCirce and Pasiphaë. His other children are Phaethusa (“radiant”) and Lampetia (“shining”).

Helios is sometimes identified with Apollo: “Different names may refer to the same being,” Walter Burkert observes, “or else they may be consciously equated, as in the case of Apollo and Helios.”[6]

In Homeric literature, Apollo is clearly identified as a different god, a plague-dealer with a silver (not golden) bow and no solar features.

The earliest certain reference to Apollo identified with Helios appears in the surviving fragments of Euripides‘ play Phaethon in a speech near the end (fr 781 N²), Clymene, Phaethon’s mother, laments that Helios has destroyed her child, that Helios whom men rightly call Apollo (the name Apollo is here understood to mean Apollon “Destroyer”).

By Hellenistic times Apollo had become closely connected with the Sun in cult. His epithet Phoebus, Phoibos “shining”, drawn from Helios, was later also applied by Latin poets to the sun-god Sol.

Coin of Roman Emperor Constantine I depicting Sol Invictus/Apollo with the legend SOLI INVICTO COMITI, c. 315 AD.

The identification became a commonplace in philosophic texts and appears in the writing of ParmenidesEmpedoclesPlutarch and Crates of Thebes among others, as well as appearing in some Orphic texts. Pseudo-Eratosthenes writes about Orpheus in Catasterismi, section 24:

“But having gone down into Hades because of his wife and seeing what sort of things were there, he did not continue to worship Dionysus, because of whom he was famous, but he thought Helios to be the greatest of the gods, Helios whom he also addressed as Apollo. Rousing himself each night toward dawn and climbing the mountain called Pangaion, he would await the sun’s rising, so that he might see it first. Therefore Dionysus, being angry with him, sent the Bassarides, as Aeschylus the tragedian says; they tore him apart and scattered the limbs.”[7]

Dionysus and Asclepius are sometimes also identified with this Apollo Helios.[8]

Classical Latin poets also used Phoebus as a byname for the sun-god, whence come common references in later European poetry to Phoebus and his car (“chariot”) as a metaphor for the sun. But in particular instances in myth, Apollo and Helios are distinct. The sun-god, the son of Hyperion, with his sun chariot, though often called Phoebus (“shining”) is not called Apollo except in purposeful non-traditional identifications.[9]

Despite these identifications, Apollo was never actually described by the Greek poets driving the chariot of the sun, although it was common practice among Latin poets. Therefore, Helios is still known as the ‘sun god’ – the one who drives the sun chariot across the sky each day.

L.R. Farnell assumed “that sun-worship had once been prevalent and powerful among the people of the pre-Hellenic culture, but that very few of the communities of the later historic period retained it as a potent factor of the state religion.”[10] Our largely Attic literary sources tend to give us an unavoidable Athenian bias when we look at ancient Greek religion, and “no Athenian could be expected to worship Helios or Selene,” J. Burnet observes, “but he might think them to be gods, since Helios was the great god of Rhodes and Selene was worshiped at Elis and elsewhere.”[11] James A. Notopoulos considers Burnet’s an artificial distinction: “To believe in the existence of the gods involves acknowledgment through worship, as Laws 87 D, E shows” (note, p. 264).[12] Aristophanes‘ Peace (406-413) contrasts the worship of Helios and Selene with that of the more essentially Greek Twelve Olympians, as the representative gods of the Achaemenid Persians; all the evidence shows that Helios and Selene were minor gods to the Greeks.[13]

“The island of Rhodes is almost the only place where Helios enjoys an important cult“, Burkert asserts (p 174), instancing a spectacular rite in which a quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses, is driven over a precipice into the sea, with its overtones of the plight of Phaethon noted. There annual gymnastic tournaments were held in his honor. The Colossus of Rhodes was dedicated to him. Helios also had a significant cult on the acropolis of Corinth on the Greek mainland.[14]

However, the Dorians seem to have revered Helios, offering the central mainland cultus for Helios. The scattering of cults of the sun god in SicyonArgosErmioniEpidaurus and Laconia, and his holy livestock flocks at Taenarum, seem to suggest that the deity was considerably important in Dorian religion, compared to other parts of ancient Greece. Additionally, it may have been the Dorians to import his worship to Rhodes.[15]

The tension between the mainstream traditional religious veneration of Helios, which had become enriched with ethical values and poetical symbolism in PindarAeschylus and Sophocles,[16] and the Ionian proto-scientific examination of Helios the Sun, a phenomenon of the study Greeks termed meteora, clashed in the trial of Anaxagoras[17] c. 450 BC, a forerunner of the culturally traumatic trial of Socrates for irreligion, in 399 BC.

In Plato‘s Republic (516 B), Helios, the Sun, is the symbolic offspring of the idea of the Good.

The Etruscan god of the Sun, equivalent to Helios, was Usil. His name appears on the bronze liver of Piacenza, next to Tiur, the moon.[18] He appears, rising out of the sea, with a fireball in either outstretched hand, on an engraved Etruscan bronze mirror in late Archaic style, formerly on the Roman antiquities market.[19] On Etruscan mirrors in Classical style, he appears with a halo.

In Late Antiquity a cult of Helios Megistos (“Great Helios”) (Sol Invictus) drew to the image of Helios a number of syncretic elements, which have been analysed in detail by Wilhelm Fauth by means of a series of late Greek texts, namely:[20] an Orphic Hymn to Helios; the so-called Mithras Liturgy, where Helios rules the elements; spells and incantations invoking Helios among the Greek Magical Papyri; a Hymn to Helios by ProclusJulian‘s Oration to Helios, the last stand of official paganism; and an episode in Nonnus‘ Dionysiaca.

REF. WIKI

Odin Theta Prime

taxus-baccata-berries

Odin Theta Prime is the 9th manifestation of Odin, God of Asgard, in the prime verse, as a collective of consciousness of the golden sun lineage.

As Odin of Asgard, Odin Theta Prime has reawaken in hanging inwards at the tree of life, Taxus Bacciata, sign of his family lineage and family house (clan), the house of the Nordic Golden Wolves.

God of the travelers, entrepreneurs, artists, lovers, of war, peace and  science. Supreme governor of the Prime Land 9th, The Land of the Primes.

Odin Theta Prime, is your game master, and corner stone of the Game of the Gods and the Goddesses in Prime Self Union.

Himself is the master of the Odin Theta Prime Academy!

 

 

Chronos

800px-Chronos,sleeping_on_Wolff_grave-ME_fec

Chronos (/ˈkrnɒs/GreekΧρόνος, “time,” also transliterated as Khronos or Latinised as Chronus) is the personification of Time in pre-Socratic philosophy and later literature.

Chronos is a god with a serpentine shape and three heads: those of a man, a bull, and a lion.[citation needed]Chronos and his daughter and consort Ananke (Inevitability) circled the primal world egg in their coils and split it apart to form the ordered universe of earth, sea, and sky.

Chronos already was confused with, or perhaps consciously identified with, the Titan Cronus in antiquity due to the similarity in names.[1] The identification became more widespread during the Renaissance, giving rise to the allegory of “Father Time” wielding the harvesting scythe.

He was depicted in Greco-Roman mosaics as a man turning the Zodiac Wheel.Chronos might also be contrasted with the deity Aion as Eternal Time[2] (see aeon).

Chronos is usually portrayed as an old, wise man with a long, grey beard, similar to Father Time. Some of the current English words whose etymological root is khronos/chronos include chronologychronometerchronicanachronism, and chronicle.

In the Orphic cosmogony, the unaging Chronos produced Aether and Chaos, and made a silvery egg in the divine Aether. It produced the hermaphroditic god Phanes and Hydrus who gave birth to the first generation of gods and is the ultimate creator of the cosmos.

Pherecydes of Syros in his lost Heptamychos (the seven recesses), around 6th century BC, claimed that there were three eternal principles: ChronosZas (Zeus) and Chthonie (the chthonic). The semen of Chronos was placed in the recesses and produced the first generation of gods.[3]

During antiquity, Chronos was occasionally interpreted as Cronus.[4] According to Plutarch, the Greeks believed that Cronus was an allegorical name for Chronos.[5] In addition to the name, the story of Cronus eating his children was also interpreted as an allegory to a specific aspect of time held within Cronus’ sphere of influence. As the theory went, Cronus represented the destructive ravages of time which consumed all things, a concept that was definitely illustrated when the Titan king devoured the Olympian gods — the past consuming the future, the older generation suppressing the next generation. During the Renaissance, the identification of Cronus and Chronos gave rise to “Father Time” wielding the harvesting scythe.

The original meaning and etymology of the word chronos are uncertain.[6]

REF: WIKI